Cholera is the subject of today’s study. Which is a bacterial disease and is scientifically called Vibrio Cholera. This bacterial disease causes intense dehydration, which is a side effect of diarrhea. The bacteria are transferred by contaminated food such as raw shellfish and contaminated water. The following is symptoms of Vibrio Cholera; smelly diarrhea, vomiting, wrinkled skin, low blood pressure, dry mouth and rapid heart rate are examples of the symptoms exhibited when the person is affected. An average time in which symptoms begin to show is three to five days after the subject is infected. When the subject is exhibiting symptoms, the best treatment for this is by fluid through IV and by oral consumption, electrolyte replacement, and in cases where there is severe dehydration, which in turn causes diseases antibiotic such as Erythromycin for children and Azithromycin for pregnant women. There are three different types of vaccines that can prevent contracting Vibrio Cholera. The first one named Dukoral, the second Shanchol, and the third Euvichol. (medicinenet.com)
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Introduction to V. Cholera
According to WHO Infectious, pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi, cause diseases, the diseases spread, directly or indirectly, from one person to another. (Who.int, 2018) The following research paper based on a bacterial disease scientifically given the name Vibrio Cholera and its common name is Cholera. The bacteria spreads through water and raw or undercooked foods such as seafood, raw grain, and raw vegetables.
Vibrio Cholera is a bacterial disease that causes vomiting and diarrhea. This bacterial disease affects the small intestine and caused by contaminated drinking water, contaminated food such as; raw shellfish or other contaminated food. There are 138 serotypes of the bacterial disease, and can only be seen when it is placed under an electron microscope. Then after you adjust, the magnification to 50,000 times you can see (small hairs on the bacteria.) The shape of this particular bacterial disease is a rod-shape that curves. Measuring to about 0.3 micron (which means that it is one thousandth of one millimeter) in width. The curved-rod shaped bacteria measures about to 1.3 micron in length. The bacterial disease has 155 serogroups, which means that the microorganisms that cause the symptoms are closely groups and are similar because of a set of antigens. Antigens are O1 and O139 are the two main serotypes that causes the epidemics around the world. Epidemics such as the first recorded outbreak in the 1819 in the South-East Asia. In addition, from the first outbreak it spread like fire across the world. The next outbreak happened in six more times until 1961 when the seventh cholera outbreak, which soon became a pandemic started in Indonesia. Then the bacterial disease caught and spread to other countries. Such as; Asia, Europe, Africa and in 1991 to Latin America. In Latin America the reported cases of Vibrio Cholera racked up to 400, 000. The deaths continued to rise and held 4,000 out of the 16 Americas countries. Vibrio Cholera continued to rage on and the bacterial disease began to mutate. In Bangladesh, 1992 a new serogroup named El Tor has emerged from the pandemic that swiped the nations. El Tor given the name 0139 Bengal and has helped further research on this bacterial disease.
Signs and Symptoms
Symptoms consist of dehydration caused by smelly diarrhea, wrinkling of the skin, dryness of the mouth, low blood pressure, and rapid heart rate. (Gompf, “Cholera Spread, Treatment, History, Vaccine & Prevention,” n.d.) In children, cholera presents itself similar as it does in adults. Except they may experience hypoglycemia (low blood pressure) because of dehydration. Every hour the infected person who has Vibrio Cholera loses up to 1L of water each hour. Because of this dehydration and the following may also occur; altered consciousness, seizers, and a coma. These symptoms usually appear 2-3 days after initial contact or exposure from the bacterial disease. The host carries the bacterial disease for a few days but can be re-infected. After the disease is out of there system the host can carry the bacterial disease for several months and can infect others. If left untreated death will likely occur in about 48 hours.
How to Diagnose
The way a doctor would be able to diagnose Vibrio Cholera would be through a stool sample. A simple test called the rapid cholera dipstick tests allowing overseas or remote areas to be sure of the diagnosis of Vibrio Cholera. These tests called Rapid Dipstick Cholera Tests (RDC) are allowing faster assurance of the diagnoses, which in turn prevents more deaths from happening. The (RDC) tests are stopping the outbreaks quicker and more efficiently.
Deaths and Affected
1.4 million To about 4.3 million worldwide contract this bacterial disease each year. In addition, around the world 28,000 to 142,000 die each year because of Vibrio Cholera. Only 1:10 people develop symptoms mentioned above. (Study.com, 2018) Cholera can cause death within 48 hours if not treated. The most common way people die with Cholera is because of side effects. Such as, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), low potassium levels (hypokalemia), and kidney failure, shock, dehydration.
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Standard Based Precautions
According to the (Ayd Mem Contac and colera Eng revisado.doc), contact precautions are the procedure that placed in order to prevent the spread of the infectious agent. Such as using gloves or other Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to prevent against the contaminated materials. It is important that health care providers (HCP) should use gloves and gowns when taking care of a carrier of the bacterial disease. Cleaning diarrhea, vomit and any spills from the carrier will help prevent the spread of infection to others. When cleaning the spills, or discharge from the carrier bleach will be used. It is important that when using bleach consisting of using the one part bleach to every 10 parts water ratio. This balanced cleaning material used after the spills are cleaned and on the frequently used items twice a day. For visitors they must wash their hands with warm water and soapy hands, if there is not a way to wash hands then use alcohol-based hand rub. After that, the visitor must don the appropriate PPE gear. Which would be non-sterile gloves and a gown with long sleeves they must also take off the contaminated (PPE) before exiting the room.
Mode of Transmission
Vibrio Cholera, which is transferred through contact with fecal matter of the infected carrier, enters the mouth. This can be through many things such as contaminated food and water. Preventing from getting Vibrio Cholera consist of making sure everything you eat and drink is purified and not contaminated. That means that before drinking water boil it and use rather Iodine or Chlorine to purify the water. Food wise making and preparing food yourself and making sure that it is cooked fully will help prevent contracting the bacterial disease, Vibrio Cholera.
When the symptoms increase, the body begins to lose water, which causes dehydration. Treatment options consist of Antibiotics, IV (Intravenous) liquids and replacement of electrolytes, which helps fight the loss of water through vomiting and diarrhea. Electrolyte (Microbiology.com, 2018) Antibiotics such as Tetracycline can shorten the length of the shedding of infectious material in the stool. (CDC, 2018)
Transmission and Prevention.
The bacterial disease, Vibrio Cholera, discovered in brackish waters, which is the natural living place of the bacteria. Vibrio Cholera fastens itself onto shell organisms such as; crabs, shellfish, and shrimp. This incubation period, or time it takes to grow and show symptoms start as soon as 12 hours of initial disease to five days. Vibrio Cholera can live outside the human body and then transferred by contaminated items such as; clothing, and sheets. There are many ways to prevent contracting Vibrio Cholera. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) drinking only purified water done by boiling, treated with iodine or chlorine. Drinking beverages such as coffee and tea made with boiled water and or carbonated, bottled beverages and avoid using ice are simple examples of avoiding contamination of water. Eating hot foods and fruit that you have prepared yourself is another example. Staying away from raw seafood such as shellfish and a dish that served cold named ceviche. Ceviche is a dish often served in foreign countries using raw fish. Making sure all vegetables and grain is cooked fully and avoiding food and drinks from street vendors. Are another way the CDC recommends to prevent contracting the bacterial disease? (CDC, 2018) W.H.O. recommends three types of vaccines that are FDA approved. The first is Dukoral and it offers 50% protection from Vibrio Cholera for two to three years. The second vaccine named Shanchol and this one protects 60% for three years. Lastly, Euvichol, which protects up to 60% for three years. These vaccines prescribed orally twice in two weeks within 10 days before traveling to a country with a Vibrio Cholera outbreak. Most countries do not require travelers to obtain a vaccine that protects from the bacterial disease.